A History of Golf Balls

While it might seem rather odd to imagine golf balls other than through how they look in their present incarnation, the truth is the appearance of the golf ball has changed considerably over the long history of the sport. The golf ball did not exist then as it is now just like the sport, it is in continual development.

Its evolution can be traced along the parallel evolution in technology, as well as in the discovery of new material for use in manufacturing.

wooden golf ballsThe earliest golf balls were round, hard, and wooden. These wooden golf balls were used as early as the 14th century until they went out of vogue in the 17th century. Mostly made out of beech wood, these were made just by carpenters, using the equipment, material, and woodcraft technologies available back in those days. These were relatively cheap and quick to produce, as compared to the next type.

The feathery (also spelled featherie) was the immediate successor to the wooden golf balls used during the early days of the sport. The feathery became the standard ball of the sport, being widely used until the 19th century. This variant is made of a pouch sewn by hand then stuffed with boiled and softened goose or chicken feathers. The rule of thumb for sufficient stuffing is to boil as many feathers as will fit into a top hat.

Several difficulties arose with the design of the feathery. Because of its material, it is difficult to craft a perfectly spherical ball thus, ball trajectories could be highly irregular, meaning players have less control. It was also impractical to use during the wetter seasons since the feather stuffing soaks in water. This increases the weight of the ball and makes it prone to splitting open. The feathery was also painstaking to craft.

Unlike wooden balls which only required carpenters, the feathery was created only by specialized ball makers. Because of the time-consuming process, ball makers only managed to make a few of these in a day. This drove the price of the feathery even higher.

gutta-percha ballThe next variant came in 1848, when the gutta-percha ball, also called the guttie or gutty, was invented. The gutty is made by heating dried tree sap and molding it into a sphere. This made the gutty inexpensive in terms of production. It can also be remolded when damaged. Another advantage was that the gutty ages well. Over continued usage, the gutty will sustain some damage in the form of nicks, but it has been found that these nicks actually improve the performance of the ball. Ever since that discovery, manufacturers began intentionally marking textured patterns on the gutty.

The next development in the field was in 1898 when the rubber Haskell golf ball was invented. This specific variant is made by wounding rubber thread on an encased-liquid or solid core. This soon evolved into the golf balls of the 20th century which are characterized by the addition of a soft or hard outer shell in the design. The shell was first made of sap from the balata tree.

In the latter half of the 90s, many manufacturers also experimented with different materials. It was during that time that balls made from synthetic resins and mixes of urethane were first used. In the decades that followed, more and more ball makers experimented with the different materials, even allowing ball customization. This customization lets players choose what material to use for the different parts of the golf ball so as to make it suit specific playing styles. The perfect mix could easily offset your weaknesses and enhance your existing strengths in terms of play.

Rockbottomgolf provides many diffrent kind of golf balls like recycled golf balls,refinished golf balls,also they have an collection of earliest golf balls like wooden balls, gutta-percha balls and many more.

Human Chorionic Gonadotropin Treatment – the Basics


If you are trying to conceive and have had no luck for the past few years, there might be hope for you in this fertility treatment. The human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) treatment induces ovulation to treat infertility. Well, it also boosts sperm count in men. But, there are some limitations to this treatment. It should not be administered to a woman who has primary ovarian failure, wherein the ovaries no longer produce eggs properly.

Furthermore, use of HCG treatments for fertility comes with high risks of multiple pregnancies. Although the chance of pregnancy is high, 30 to 60 out of 100, 35% of these pregnancies often result to miscarriages. That is why constant monitoring, with the help of your doctor, is very important. This treatment is also not recommended for those who had an early puberty (precocious puberty) and for those who are suffering from hormone-related cancers (including prostate cancer).

Proper precaution and dose adjustment is needed for those who have any of these conditions: 


  • Ovarian cyst
  • Premature puberty
  • Thyroid/Adrenal gland disorder
  • Tumor, breast cancer or cancer of the pituitary gland, hypothalamus, prostate, ovary and uterus
  • Uterine bleeding
  • Kidney disease
  • Heart disease
  • Migraine
  • Epilepsy
  • Asthma

The HCG treatment can be administered in two ways: into the muscle or under the skin. Either way, this treatment should be administered by a doctor, nurse or licensed health professional. If you are doing this at home, you should seek permission from your doctor first. Your doctor should inform you of all the possible risks, preparations and precautions.

How Does The Treatment Work 


hcg_treatmentFor infertility in women, HCG induces ovulation. It is usually given after taking menotropins. To ensure that this medication works for you, it’s a must to visit your doctor regularly for proper monitoring.

Some brands of HCG comes in single-dose, pre-filled syringes while others are in powdered form with a separate liquid which you will mix and draw into a syringe. After mixing the powder with the liquid, you should keep it tightly closed in the refrigerator. Dispose any unused doses after 30 days of mixing. There are preparations which can be kept refrigerated for up to 60 days. Be sure to check the labels for proper information.

If you notice any discoloration or unnecessary particles in the mixed medicine, dispose of it immediately. The powdered form should be stored at room temperature and away from direct sunlight, heat, and moisture.

Use each disposable needle only once. Dispose of needles properly after use. It is recommended to place your used disposable needles in a puncture-proof container for safety and to keep them away from children and pets.



In the FDA pregnancy category, HCG treatment is listed under X. This is because HCG can help you become pregnant, but if used while pregnant, it can cause possible birth defects. If you’re undergoing treatment and you think you are pregnant, contact your doctor immediately.

The effects of HCG on breastfeeding is unknown. If you are planning to breastfeed, consult your doctor for proper assessment. Do not breastfeed unless you have consulted your doctor about it.

Side Effects 


Just like any other medication, HCG shots come with certain risks. In case you notice any signs of blood clot such as warmth, redness, pain, tingling or numbness in your leg or arm, call your doctor immediately. Some women under this hormonal medication develop Ovarian Hyper Stimulation Syndrome (OHSS) which can be life-threatening. Call your doctor immediately if you feel severe pelvic pain and swelling on the legs and hands.

So, even if HCG is among the most remarkable solutions to infertility, you shouldn’t be too complacent when it comes to potential side effects.